Wellbeing is at risk under the increasing dominance of negative management styles, a Chartered Management Institute and Simplyhealth report has stated.
The Quality of Working Life 2012 reported that compared with 2007, managers have been working longer hours, increasingly suffering from ill health and more likely to work despite sickness.
It showed negative management styles were prevailing; 45% reported bureaucratic methods; 33% reactive; and 30% authoritarian.
And the emerging trend has been nurturing employee disengagement, decreasing job satisfaction, poor mental and physical health, reductions in productivity and business decline, according to the document.
Howard Hughes, head of employer marketing at Simplyhealth, said: "When it comes to health and wellbeing in the workplace, illness levels have increased, but managers seem less likely to take time off work when they are genuinely ill.
"It looks like presenteeism is another symptom of high levels of organisational change. We'd urge all organisations to ensure they have programmes in place to encourage employees to be proactive about caring for their health."
Findings showed the average manager has been working 46 days unpaid overtime each year - up from 40 days in 2007.
And 43 per cent believed sick leave was not taken when experiencing illness, with managers stating organisations were less tolerant of sick leave.
A further 42 per cent of managers reported suffering from stress symptoms in 2012, up from 35 per cent in 2007.
The report was written by Professor Les Worrall of Coventry University and Professor Cary Cooper at Lancaster University Management School.
Professor Cooper said it was unsurprising that the recession had led to more ill health among managers as they struggled to cope with heavier workloads, working longer hours and worrying about job security.
The report surveyed 1,000 managers in 2007 and 2012.